Ap lab 01b empirical formula of a hydrated salt

Ap lab 01b empirical formula of a hydrated salt

Hydrate Lab. Experimental Question: How can we experimentally determine the formula of an unknown hydrate, A?

Observing our nitrate, it has a white crystalline structure, representing that similar to table salt. Iron III chloride usually has a bright yellow appearance. Iron III sulfate has a purple tint to it, and has a crystalline structure.

This means we can exclude these three options from our prediction. Magnesium sulfate, the only left option, is white in appearance which makes it a possible identification for our hydrate. We believe our hydrate was magnesium sulfate, because the unknown hydrate was more closely related in physical appearance to that of magnesium sulfate, compared to the the three other options.

Furthermore, in order to determine the exact name of the hydrate, we must find out the ratio between the anhydrate and water that are associated with the hydrate. By multiplying the mass of the anhydrate, which is magnesium sulfate in the experiment, with its molar mass, the number of moles present at the end can be determined. The number of water moles can also be known by repeating the same procedure, but with the molar mass of water instead. Once the numbers of moles of two substances are known, the ratio can be computed by dividing them.

The ratios between molecules are in integers, but as this is an experiment, it will be more likely to acquire the ratio in decimal points. Once we know how much water is needed for each magnesium sulfate, we can then name the substance in MgSO 4 x H 2 O, where x represents the ratio. This hydrate was previously mentioned in class to be magnesium sulfate heptahydrate.

Thus, the ratio between water and magnesium sulfate will be close to being Initial Data:. Mass of the Beaker g. Calculated Data:. Mass of Hydrate g. Mass of Anhydrate g. Mass of Water g. The hydrate A was white and crystal-like at the beginning. The substance looked similar to table salt as the particles were clearly visible. As the hydrate was heated with a bunsen burner, the consistency of the substance changed from being crystal-like to chalk-like.

It seemed as if the particles were partially melting. This indicated that more water evaporated progressively and the sizes of the particles decreased accordingly. Also, some of the hydrate popped out from the beaker due to the heating. Furthermore, the strength of the heat had to be changed once from low to high as there was only 15 minutes total to heat the substance. In order to identify the unknown substance, it was necessary to research the known ratios of all four choices and then compare the calculated ratio for each of the four to that of the unknown.

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The two closest ratios of the same substance was the identity of the anhydrate. Known Formulas of Hydrates:. Ratio water to anhydrate : 5 to 1.Lab 2: Determine the Percentage of Water in a Hydrate:. The goal of this experiment is to learn how to properly calculate the ratio of salt to water, in a hydrated salt, and to calculate the percentage of water by mass within a hydrated salt.

By heating a known mass of hydrated salt, evaporating the water essentially distillationand then comparing the mass lost to the mass of anhydrous salt left behind, we can calculate the percentage of water within the hydrated salt. We can also via stochiometric and molar ratioscalculate the ratio of salt to water.

Empirical Formula Lab - Chemical Formula of Copper Chloride Hydrate

From this, we can calculate the ratio of salt to water by calculating the molar and stoichiometric ratiosand the percentage of water by mass within the hydrated salt by dividing the mass of the water, by the mass of the hydrated salt, then multiplying the resulting decimal by Determined mass of anhydrous salt by subtracting the mass of the crucible and lid, from the mass of the crucible, lid, and anhydrous salt: 1. Determined mass of the water lost by subtracting the mass of the anhydrous salt, from the hydrous salt: 1.

Determined amount of anhydrous salt by dividing the mass of the copper sulfide by the number of grams per mole, in 1 mole of copper sulfide: 0. Determined amount of water lost, by dividing the mass of the water lost during heating, by the number of grams per mole in 1 mole of water: 0. The goal of this experiment is to determine the percentage of water by mass in a hydrate, and to calculate the ratio of salt to water in a hydrated salt. To achieve this, a known mass of hydrated salt was heated, evaporating the water essentially distillation.

Given that the mass of the hydrated salt is known, it is also given that the mass lost is equivalent to the mass of the water. By comparing the mass lost to the mass of anhydrous salt left behind, we can calculate the percentage of water within the hydrated salt. Given the data presented above, findings showed the experimental percentage of water within the hydrated salt to be: Possible improvements that could be made to this experiment in the future could include increasing the sample size, to produce a more average measurement.

General Chemistry Alexander Antonopoulos site map. Lab 2: Determine the Percentage of Water in a Hydrate: The goal of this experiment is to learn how to properly calculate the ratio of salt to water, in a hydrated salt, and to calculate the percentage of water by mass within a hydrated salt. Ignited Bunsen Burner, and heated crucible for 12 minutes. Placed crucible on mesh pad using tongs from this point, the crucible was handled solely with tongs until the experiment concludedand allowed to cool to room temperature.

Measured mass of crucible again: At that time, the copper sulfate had turned a yellowish-white. Removed crucible from burner, placed on mesh pad, and allowed to return to room temperature. Measured mass of crucible with anhydrous copper sulfate: Disposed of salt within the proper receptacle, cleaned crucible, and returned all equipment to its point of origin.

Show Comments 0 and Tags. In order to comment on this portfolio you must be logged in to the school or organization it is associated with. If you have a Digication account, you may log in below: username: password:.Parts of the text on this lab will not print out.

This is by design. The lab work has two objectives: first, confirm the formula of a hydrate with known formula and second, find the formula of a hydrate in which the salt formula is known but not the molar amount of water.

This lab activity combines in-class problem-solving with lab work. Students will be introduced to the concept of hydrated salts, anhydrous salts, hydrate nomenclature, and the molar mass of hydrates. Some chemical compounds, especially inorganic salts, incorporate water into their crystalline structures.

Water has a polar structure: it has positively and negatively charged parts within each molecule. This gives it a strong attraction toward ions. The ions in some salts attract and form strong bonds with water molecules. These salts, when they have absorbed water, are called hydrates.

Anhydrous salts are salts that can form hydrates but which have had all the water driven off, usually by heat. Hydrated salts are characterized by the number of moles of water molecules per mole of salt.

The hydration reaction is shown below. The hydrate in this reaction is called nickel II chloride hexahydrate. The formula of this hydrate shows the molar amount of water incorporated into the crystal matrix. For most hydrates the amount of water included in the formula is only important when trying to measure molar amounts of the salt.

You need to know the true formula weight molar mass in order to measure out the mass needed to give a certain number of moles.

The chemical importance of the water of hydration is minimal since it can be driven off by heat or simply dissolve away if the salt is dissolved in water. The figure Formulas for hydrates are written using a dot convention: a dot is used to separate the formula of the salt from the formula of the water of hydration. A numerical coefficient gives the molar amount of water included in the hydrate.

Hydrates are named using prefixes for the word hydrate at right. One key point: the dot is not a multiplication sign. When calculating the molar mass you add the molar mass of water multiplied by the coefficient.

An everyday example of hydration is concrete. Concrete is made by mixing Portland cement with water and aggregate materials.

Hydrate Chemistry Lab Free PDF eBooks

The aggregate materials are the gravel and sand that add strength to the final concrete. The Portland cement is a mixture of calcium silicates, calcium aluminate, calcium aluminoferrite and gypsum. All of these chemicals absorb water by hydration.

Instead the water mixed with the concrete combines chemically with the materials in the cement and the resulting hydrates form a strong matrix that holds the concrete together and makes it strong. Another interesting example of the value of hydration is the incorporation of hydrated building materials such as concrete, gypsum wall board and plaster.

This can help keep damage to a minimum until the fire can be put out. In the construction business this is known as passive fire protection.

The following problems will help you to be able to do the math required for the analysis of your lab results.Kai can provide tips and support as you research and apply to colleges, and explore majors and careers. We've got articles, videos and forum discussions that provide answers to all of your test prep, admissions and college search questions.

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Finding the right college for your unique situation can be challenging. Hear from other students who shared their admissions story. I recently did a lab involving finding the empirical formula of a hydrated salt. We burned the salt until all the water evaporate and we were only left with salt.

What are 3 sources of error in this situation? Any help would be greatly appreciated. October edited October Post edited by fmcloud on October Replies to: Hydrated Salt Lab A.

P Chem.

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EverLane replies 32 threads Member. October I don't know. Maybe it reabsorbed moisture from the air. GoldShadow replies 56 threads Senior Member.

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This would happen if you burned it too much. If you described the experimental procedure it would be easier to find out where things may have gone wrong. AP registration for non-students. AP Tests ? Do Senior Year APs get credits? Moved: Ap Macro self study.

How to register for AP exams in nepal? AP Score Wrong To do this, a massed amount of the hydrate is heated over either a hot plate or Bunsen burner. This causes the water to be removed, leaving the anhydrous salt behind in the dish. The mass of the anhydrous salt, now with the absence of water, is less than Introduction: The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest whole-number ratio of the elements in the compound, which as you will discover, is a ratio of the moles of those elements.

In this experiment To determine the percent water in an unknown hydrate. To calculate water s of crystallization for an unknown hydrate.

Hydrated Salt Lab (A.P Chem)

To determine the formula of an unknown hydrate. Dial-O-Gram balance, electronic Name: J. T Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide: Lab Report The objective of the experiment is to determine the empirical formula of Magnesium Oxide through a procedure of heating magnesium ribbon to react with oxygen to form a magnesium oxide compound with the correct ratio of atoms within each element; Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide Date: Aim: The aim of this experiment was to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.

Obtain a clean, dry crucible and lid, then heat them for approximately 5 minutes over a Bunsen burner 2. Clean the surface of a 20 cm strip of magnesium ribbon using steel wool 3.

To validate that the empirical formula of copper II chloride is. To calculate the percent composition of copper in copper II chloride.

To study the reaction between copper II chloride solution and aluminium metal. Introduction One of the most fundamental statements Controlled Variable: The mass of hydrated copper II sulphate. Procedure: 1. Mass 3.

Measure the mass of a thin, crucible dish using electronic balance 3. Gently pour hydrated They will also do a redox titration to determine the percentage of oxalate in the compound. Procedure Determination of Cobalt 1. Weigh 0.

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DANGLE LAD 3 from four wins have been in the dry and capable of finising strongly, capable of getting into the money.

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MORTIFIED won last start at Moe and draws to do no work, place claims. Night's Watch (4) 5. Dodging Bullets (15) 11. Eschiele (13) Trying to find the quinella here with a dominant top pick.

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Terindah (4) Form suggests the winner will come from the top three picks. DAM READY resumes from a 19 week spell and racing back from the city, one of the main hopes. BLOOD MOON winner of three in a row after last start win at Echuca and has shown early speed in races to date, has solid claims. GREVISTE resumes after a 22 week spell. Resumes well and won at Ballarat when last first-up, among the chances. TERINDAH first-up after 20 week spell and Cranbourne trial winner, dangerous.

Yea (VIC) Non-TAB 3. Auspicious Lad (1) 1. Bern for You (3) 4. Golden Tart (5) Scratched 5.View video transcriptsWe encourage a balanced approach to gambling by providing practical tips on how to gamble responsibly.

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This information should not replace or be considered as an alternative to professional advice. If you need help, please call Gambler's Help on 1800 858 858. This service operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and is free and confidential. Staying in control Signs of harm Gambling calculator We encourage a balanced approach to gambling by providing practical tips on how to gamble responsibly. Set money and time limits and stick to them. Keep track of your spend. Sticking to limits means you'll have more time and money to do other things you enjoy, like going on a holiday with your family, or buying something you want.

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Full time result : Is the betting selection of the 90 min result of the game and can be 1 ( home team win ) X ( Draw ) 2 ( Away team win )Over and under 2,5 or 3,5 goals : Is the betting selection about the total number of goals in one game. Half time- Full time : Is the selection of double result in one game. The first sign is for the first half and the second for the full time. Foe Exb Man utd -stoke X-1 HT-FT. That mean that our selection is the game first half result to be DRAW and the full time result to be Man utd WIN.

GG OR NG : GG means that both of the teams will score in the game and NG means that one or both of the teams will not score in the game. DNB : That means DRAW NO BET. If we select 1 DNB that mean that if the home team win we WIN if the result is DRAW we take back our stake and if the away team win we lose.

If we select 2 DNB that mean that if the Away team win we WIN if the result is DRAW we take back our stake and if the home team win we lose. DC ( Double Chance ) : 1X (DC ) mean that we win if home team win or if we have a draw. If the away win we lose.